[LincolnTalk] SUDBURY | Responses to Frequently Asked EEE Questions > Health Department

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[LincolnTalk] SUDBURY | Responses to Frequently Asked EEE Questions > Health Department

Dennis Liu

FYI, from an emergency meeting of the Sudbury Board of Health on Sunday evening.  In a nutshell, given the inherent, deadly risk of EEE being confirmed in Sudbury, the Board of Health voted unanimously to conduct town wide spraying for mosquitoes immediately – as supported by the Mass Dept of Public Health -- as well as continuing to recommend to individuals to take their own precautions.

Do you think whether these public health officials ponder if they should have proactively done this before a town resident became infected?

https://sudbury.ma.us/health/2019/09/09/response-and-frequently-asked-eee-questions/

Responses to Frequently Asked EEE Questions

 Published September 9, 2019 | Health Department

The Sudbury Board of Health called an emergency meeting on Sunday, September 8th to discuss an organized and appropriate response for the confirmed case of EEE. The following measures were voted on and approved:

  1. The Board voted unanimously to conduct town-wide truck mounted mosquito spraying to reduce the remaining mosquito population as an effective measure to reduce EEE risk. This action is supported by the Massachusetts Department of Public Health (MDPH) and will be conducted by the East Middlesex Mosquito Control Project.
  2. The Board voted unanimously to continue advising residents to adhere to all MDPH recommendations and guidelines that can be found at https://www.mass.gov/guides/eee-in-massachusetts. These guidelines are continually being revised and residents are encouraged to visit the site frequently.
  3. The Board voted unanimously to instruct the Director of Public Health to continue an educational campaign utilizing the town website and MDPH websites as primary methods to distribute information. The Board instructed the Health Director to prioritize EEE response and to attend all town meetings to support Boards and committees.
  4. The Board voted unanimously to prioritize continued evaluation of current relevant data on EEE and response, including spraying. The Director must continually advise the Board until the threat is diminished and take appropriate action to protect public health.

All boards, committees, and staff are contributing to a unified response.

 

https://sudbury.ma.us/health/wp-content/uploads/sites/297/2019/09/Questions-and-Answers-EEE-Sept-9-19.pdf?version=956f0444efbf3f2fcdcb8efd27d5f045

Frequently asked Questions Regarding EEE and Mosquitos

What is Eastern Equine Encephalitis (EEE) virus?

Eastern Equine Encephalitis (EEE) is a rare but serious disease caused by a virus. EEE is a rare

disease that is caused by a virus spread by infected mosquitoes. EEE virus (EEEV) is one of a

group of mosquito-transmitted viruses that can cause inflammation of the brain (encephalitis). In

the United States, approximately 5-10 EEE cases are reported annually. Diagnosis is based on tests

of blood or spinal fluid. These tests typically look for antibodies that the body makes against the

viral infection.

How does the EEE virus spread to humans?

EEE transmission can occur (through a “bridge vector”) when certain mammal biting

mosquito species bite a bird that is ill with the virus, and after the mosquito is infected with the

virus it could bite a human or animal and transmit the EEE virus. Disease transmission does not

occur directly from person to person.

What is the treatment for EEE?

There is no specific treatment for EEE. Antibiotics are not effective against viruses, and no

effective anti-viral drugs have been discovered. Severe illnesses are treated by supportive therapy

which may include hospitalization, respiratory support, IV fluids, and prevention of other

infections.

What are the symptoms of EEE?

It takes 4 to 10 days after the bite of an infected mosquito to develop symptoms of EEE. Severe

cases of EEEV infection (EEE, involving encephalitis, an inflammation of the brain) begin with

the sudden onset of headache, high fever, chills, and vomiting. The illness may then progress into

disorientation, seizures, and coma. Approximately a third of patients who develop EEE die, and

many of those who survive have mild to severe brain damage. Consult your health care provider

immediately if you develop any of these symptoms.

How can I protect myself and loved ones?

Prevent mosquito bites. There is no vaccine or preventive drug.

• Use insect repellent containing DEET, picaridin, IR3535 or oil of lemon eucalyptus on

exposed skin and/or clothing. The repellent/insecticide permethrin can be used on clothing

to protect through several washes. Always follow the directions on the package.

• Avoid spending time outdoors between dusk and dawn when mosquitoes are most active.

• Wear long sleeves and pants when weather permits.

• Have secure, intact screens on windows and doors to keep mosquitoes out.

• Eliminate mosquito breeding sites by emptying standing water from flower pots, buckets,

gutters, barrels, and other containers. Drill holes in tire swings so water drains out. Keep

children’s wading pools empty and on their sides when they aren’t being used.

What population is most at risk?

Anyone in an area where the virus is circulating can get infected with EEEV. The risk is highest

for people who live in or visit woodland habitats, and people who work outside or participate in

outdoor recreational activities, because of greater exposure to potentially infected mosquitoes.

Persons over age 50 and under age 15 and people with compromised immune systems seem to be

at greatest risk for developing severe disease when infected with EEE. Overall, only about 4-5%

of human EEE infections result in EEE illness.

Are your pets at risk for EEE?

Although very rare, Dog and Cats are susceptible to EEE virus. Most Dogs and cats recover fully.

Horses, llamas and alpacas are all known to be susceptible to EEE. Animals become infected the

same way humans become infected: by the bite of an infected mosquito. Treatment, diagnosis and

symptoms are the similar to human cases. Call your veterinarian immediately if your pet exhibits

any of these symptoms.

Which Mosquito repellent should I use?

Repellents that contain DEET (N, N-diethyl-m-toluamide), permethrin, IR3535 (3-[N-butyl-Nacetyl]-aminopropionic acid) or picaridin (KBR 3023) provide protection against mosquitoes. In

addition, oil of lemon eucalyptus [p-menthane 3, 8-diol (PMD)] has been found to provide as

much protection as low concentrations of DEET when tested against mosquitoes found in the

United States.

DEET products should not be used on infants under 2 months of age. Children older than two

months should use products with DEET concentrations of 30% or less. DEET products are

available in formulations up to 100% DEET, so always read the product label to determine the

percentage of DEET included. Products with DEET concentrations higher than 30% do not

provide much additional protection, but do last longer

Explain mosquito surveillance?

The East Middlesex Mosquito Control Project (EMMCP) provides mosquito control services to

26 participating communities located west and northwest of Boston, including Sudbury.

Surveillance is included in these services. There is a science and methodology in the control of

mosquitos that begins with trapping and identifying species, evaluating quantities, and testing for

diseases, most commonly EEE and West Nile Virus. There are multiple traps set in locations that

were determined by an entomologist based on prime mosquito breeding habitats. Testing is

conducted weekly. It will continue until the first deep hard frost.

What areas are concerning for mosquito breeding?

All areas are concerning but large maple swamps and cedar swamps tend to breed large volumes

of concerning species.

Is truck mounted spraying effective?

The Board of Health and MDPH continues to review current data and studies regarding the

effectiveness of truck mounted adulticide spraying. Studies show that this method is effective in

reducing mosquito populations. Spraying is not arbitrarily done and is conducted and based on a

comprehensive control plan.

What is involved in mosquito control?

In addition to surviellence, EMMCP conducts early season helicopter larvicide spraying and

catch basin applications. Targeted truck mounted adulticide spraying occurs throughout the

summer. Emergency applications based on threat.

How far from the truck is spraying effective?

Approximately 300 ft.

Should I supplement private spraying?

Homeowners should make their own decisions but are strongly advised to review products based

on effectiveness and safety data.

Can I opt out of spraying?

This could take up to two weeks to get to EMMCP so it will not be possible to opt out for

spraying scheduled for Monday and Tuesday.

If you like to be excluded from truck mounted adulticide spraying:

https://www.mass.gov/how-to/how-to-request-exclusion-from-wide-area-pesticide-applications

Will the town’s mosquito control plan be revised based on the current case?

The Board of Health, EMMCP, MDPH and the Massachusetts Department of Agricultural

Resources are continually assessing and modifying plans based on new information.

Should air conditions be turned off when the truck drives by?

Yes.

Can dead mosquitos be tested?

No.

Is there a natural decline in mosquito later in the season?

Yes, and according to recent surveillance the numbers are trending downward with decreasing

temperatures.

Is surveillance near schools increasing?

No. EEE has been confirmed in Sudbury and should be presumed to exist town-wide.

What percentages of mosquitos have EEE?

This is unknown but presumed to be very low.

How can we be notified for Sudbury emergencies if we are not resident?

Anyone can register for emergency notifications through:

https://www.smart911.com/smart911/registration/registrationLanding.action?cdnExternalPath=

Links & References

https://www.mass.gov/service-details/eee-eastern-equine-encephalitis

https://www.cdc.gov/easternequineencephalitis/index.html

https://www.mass.gov/service-details/wnv-and-eee-in-animals

 


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Re: [LincolnTalk] SUDBURY | Responses to Frequently Asked EEE Questions > Health Department

Richard Panetta
Dennis,

 They had been spraying prior to the girl's diagnosis. 



I am pretty sure there were other neighborhoods as well prior. But I do not have the time to research it right now.  



On Tue, Sep 10, 2019 at 8:42 AM Dennis Liu <[hidden email]> wrote:

FYI, from an emergency meeting of the Sudbury Board of Health on Sunday evening.  In a nutshell, given the inherent, deadly risk of EEE being confirmed in Sudbury, the Board of Health voted unanimously to conduct town wide spraying for mosquitoes immediately – as supported by the Mass Dept of Public Health -- as well as continuing to recommend to individuals to take their own precautions.

Do you think whether these public health officials ponder if they should have proactively done this before a town resident became infected?

https://sudbury.ma.us/health/2019/09/09/response-and-frequently-asked-eee-questions/

Responses to Frequently Asked EEE Questions

 Published September 9, 2019 | Health Department

The Sudbury Board of Health called an emergency meeting on Sunday, September 8th to discuss an organized and appropriate response for the confirmed case of EEE. The following measures were voted on and approved:

  1. The Board voted unanimously to conduct town-wide truck mounted mosquito spraying to reduce the remaining mosquito population as an effective measure to reduce EEE risk. This action is supported by the Massachusetts Department of Public Health (MDPH) and will be conducted by the East Middlesex Mosquito Control Project.
  2. The Board voted unanimously to continue advising residents to adhere to all MDPH recommendations and guidelines that can be found at https://www.mass.gov/guides/eee-in-massachusetts. These guidelines are continually being revised and residents are encouraged to visit the site frequently.
  3. The Board voted unanimously to instruct the Director of Public Health to continue an educational campaign utilizing the town website and MDPH websites as primary methods to distribute information. The Board instructed the Health Director to prioritize EEE response and to attend all town meetings to support Boards and committees.
  4. The Board voted unanimously to prioritize continued evaluation of current relevant data on EEE and response, including spraying. The Director must continually advise the Board until the threat is diminished and take appropriate action to protect public health.

All boards, committees, and staff are contributing to a unified response.

 

https://sudbury.ma.us/health/wp-content/uploads/sites/297/2019/09/Questions-and-Answers-EEE-Sept-9-19.pdf?version=956f0444efbf3f2fcdcb8efd27d5f045

Frequently asked Questions Regarding EEE and Mosquitos

What is Eastern Equine Encephalitis (EEE) virus?

Eastern Equine Encephalitis (EEE) is a rare but serious disease caused by a virus. EEE is a rare

disease that is caused by a virus spread by infected mosquitoes. EEE virus (EEEV) is one of a

group of mosquito-transmitted viruses that can cause inflammation of the brain (encephalitis). In

the United States, approximately 5-10 EEE cases are reported annually. Diagnosis is based on tests

of blood or spinal fluid. These tests typically look for antibodies that the body makes against the

viral infection.

How does the EEE virus spread to humans?

EEE transmission can occur (through a “bridge vector”) when certain mammal biting

mosquito species bite a bird that is ill with the virus, and after the mosquito is infected with the

virus it could bite a human or animal and transmit the EEE virus. Disease transmission does not

occur directly from person to person.

What is the treatment for EEE?

There is no specific treatment for EEE. Antibiotics are not effective against viruses, and no

effective anti-viral drugs have been discovered. Severe illnesses are treated by supportive therapy

which may include hospitalization, respiratory support, IV fluids, and prevention of other

infections.

What are the symptoms of EEE?

It takes 4 to 10 days after the bite of an infected mosquito to develop symptoms of EEE. Severe

cases of EEEV infection (EEE, involving encephalitis, an inflammation of the brain) begin with

the sudden onset of headache, high fever, chills, and vomiting. The illness may then progress into

disorientation, seizures, and coma. Approximately a third of patients who develop EEE die, and

many of those who survive have mild to severe brain damage. Consult your health care provider

immediately if you develop any of these symptoms.

How can I protect myself and loved ones?

Prevent mosquito bites. There is no vaccine or preventive drug.

• Use insect repellent containing DEET, picaridin, IR3535 or oil of lemon eucalyptus on

exposed skin and/or clothing. The repellent/insecticide permethrin can be used on clothing

to protect through several washes. Always follow the directions on the package.

• Avoid spending time outdoors between dusk and dawn when mosquitoes are most active.

• Wear long sleeves and pants when weather permits.

• Have secure, intact screens on windows and doors to keep mosquitoes out.

• Eliminate mosquito breeding sites by emptying standing water from flower pots, buckets,

gutters, barrels, and other containers. Drill holes in tire swings so water drains out. Keep

children’s wading pools empty and on their sides when they aren’t being used.

What population is most at risk?

Anyone in an area where the virus is circulating can get infected with EEEV. The risk is highest

for people who live in or visit woodland habitats, and people who work outside or participate in

outdoor recreational activities, because of greater exposure to potentially infected mosquitoes.

Persons over age 50 and under age 15 and people with compromised immune systems seem to be

at greatest risk for developing severe disease when infected with EEE. Overall, only about 4-5%

of human EEE infections result in EEE illness.

Are your pets at risk for EEE?

Although very rare, Dog and Cats are susceptible to EEE virus. Most Dogs and cats recover fully.

Horses, llamas and alpacas are all known to be susceptible to EEE. Animals become infected the

same way humans become infected: by the bite of an infected mosquito. Treatment, diagnosis and

symptoms are the similar to human cases. Call your veterinarian immediately if your pet exhibits

any of these symptoms.

Which Mosquito repellent should I use?

Repellents that contain DEET (N, N-diethyl-m-toluamide), permethrin, IR3535 (3-[N-butyl-Nacetyl]-aminopropionic acid) or picaridin (KBR 3023) provide protection against mosquitoes. In

addition, oil of lemon eucalyptus [p-menthane 3, 8-diol (PMD)] has been found to provide as

much protection as low concentrations of DEET when tested against mosquitoes found in the

United States.

DEET products should not be used on infants under 2 months of age. Children older than two

months should use products with DEET concentrations of 30% or less. DEET products are

available in formulations up to 100% DEET, so always read the product label to determine the

percentage of DEET included. Products with DEET concentrations higher than 30% do not

provide much additional protection, but do last longer

Explain mosquito surveillance?

The East Middlesex Mosquito Control Project (EMMCP) provides mosquito control services to

26 participating communities located west and northwest of Boston, including Sudbury.

Surveillance is included in these services. There is a science and methodology in the control of

mosquitos that begins with trapping and identifying species, evaluating quantities, and testing for

diseases, most commonly EEE and West Nile Virus. There are multiple traps set in locations that

were determined by an entomologist based on prime mosquito breeding habitats. Testing is

conducted weekly. It will continue until the first deep hard frost.

What areas are concerning for mosquito breeding?

All areas are concerning but large maple swamps and cedar swamps tend to breed large volumes

of concerning species.

Is truck mounted spraying effective?

The Board of Health and MDPH continues to review current data and studies regarding the

effectiveness of truck mounted adulticide spraying. Studies show that this method is effective in

reducing mosquito populations. Spraying is not arbitrarily done and is conducted and based on a

comprehensive control plan.

What is involved in mosquito control?

In addition to surviellence, EMMCP conducts early season helicopter larvicide spraying and

catch basin applications. Targeted truck mounted adulticide spraying occurs throughout the

summer. Emergency applications based on threat.

How far from the truck is spraying effective?

Approximately 300 ft.

Should I supplement private spraying?

Homeowners should make their own decisions but are strongly advised to review products based

on effectiveness and safety data.

Can I opt out of spraying?

This could take up to two weeks to get to EMMCP so it will not be possible to opt out for

spraying scheduled for Monday and Tuesday.

If you like to be excluded from truck mounted adulticide spraying:

https://www.mass.gov/how-to/how-to-request-exclusion-from-wide-area-pesticide-applications

Will the town’s mosquito control plan be revised based on the current case?

The Board of Health, EMMCP, MDPH and the Massachusetts Department of Agricultural

Resources are continually assessing and modifying plans based on new information.

Should air conditions be turned off when the truck drives by?

Yes.

Can dead mosquitos be tested?

No.

Is there a natural decline in mosquito later in the season?

Yes, and according to recent surveillance the numbers are trending downward with decreasing

temperatures.

Is surveillance near schools increasing?

No. EEE has been confirmed in Sudbury and should be presumed to exist town-wide.

What percentages of mosquitos have EEE?

This is unknown but presumed to be very low.

How can we be notified for Sudbury emergencies if we are not resident?

Anyone can register for emergency notifications through:

https://www.smart911.com/smart911/registration/registrationLanding.action?cdnExternalPath=

Links & References

https://www.mass.gov/service-details/eee-eastern-equine-encephalitis

https://www.cdc.gov/easternequineencephalitis/index.html

https://www.mass.gov/service-details/wnv-and-eee-in-animals

 

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